‘Generalists Program’ Posts

 

Divination 1, #6

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Describe the results of three divinations performed by you. These divinations may be text assisted. (minimum 100 words each)

Divination #1

The first Divination performed was for the question: “What do the kindred have in store for me?”
I pulled Uruz, Berkano, and Eihwaz

Uruz to me is a symbol of the fighting spirit towards manifestation.
Berkano is a symbol of a rite of passage, or a cycle of rebirth or new growth
Eihwaz is representative of a state of transition, connection, or relationship between poles in the center of all worlds.

There seems to be a common theme of transformation in this reading.  I already know you as a fighting spirit towards your beliefs and goals, so it is not surprising to me to see this in this reading.  Berkano suggestions you are going through a period of growth during this transformation.  It was pulled as “reverse” if you believe in such things, but I tend to not lean that way.  I see this growth as a positive change, but I suspect it will not  be an easy one at all.

Ending with Eihwaz, I almost see this as you taking the part of the world tree, connecting worlds or “arguments” together and bringing peace between them, or at least opening the lines of communication between them.

When asking for a little clarification, I pulled Thurisaz, the thorn, or that divine power or “fuel” that helps assist in changes.  I attempted to pull additional runes for clarification, because this is pretty generic, but they pretty much all pulled towards this same transformation.  So I believe this to be your path from the Kindred.  The question was pretty broad, so I couldn’t get too specific.

(Word Count: 264)

Divination #2

My second divination asks: “Will my daughter have justice?”
I am leaving out specifics in relation to this question out of courtesy as both Clergy and general privacy.

I pulled, Jera, Ingwaz, and Eihwaz.

Jera is the good harvest, right reward of the season.  A natural law of cause and effect.

Ingwaz as death that turns into life.  Transformation after a period of gestation.  Fertility and successful completion.

Eihwaz is the rune of transformation and a communication between worlds.

I read this as a very positive omen.  Jera represents a good harvest, a good collective outcome and the attribution of karma.  I believe this to mean that the outcome will be positive for the question.

Ingwaz leads me to believe that this will not necessarily be a visible karma that you will see, or even one that will happen immediately, but one that will happen after the appropriate time, and with a fertile outcome.  So do not expect immediate satisfaction here, you have to let nature takes its course.

Eihwaz to me points in the direction of you acting as a facilitator for healing here. It’s not a healing rune, but it is a rune that brings together worlds and communication.  And I think that is going to be your role in this and that your daughter will need you to be that world tree to stand tall between the worlds for her.

(Word Count: 233)

Divination #3

The question: When the right guy will come along, when will I have a happy and successful relationship?”

I pulled Fehu, Uruz, and Isa

Fehu means wealth, or “cattle” in what is considered a cattle culture, so this is a term of wealth.

Uruz is the wild primal energy that helps to manifest an outcome.

Isa is ice, or rather primal calm ice that was melted and creates an attraction to fire.  This is a frozen stillness that may eventually melt.

This was a tricky reading, but I believe it to be a positive outcome, though timely.  Fehu brings in wealth, which I take to mean there will be an abundance of good things to you in terms of a relationship.  Uruz brings in an unorganized passion, which I believe to mean that this will not be something you can look for and find.  I think it will come abruptly and not by your own influence.  Isa as the frozen stillness gives brings in two notions.  The first being that this is not going to happen soon, that there needs to be a defrost period before you can achieve this.  There may be a buried anger or coldness inside you, even an obsession or pain, that you need to focus on first to let that fiery passion take over.  Essentially you need to defrost yourself or whatever is holding you back now in order to allow this fire of plenty to come into your life.

I pulled another rune for clarity and I pulled Elhaz.  This is a rune of the elk and a rune of protection.  This rune has a strong connection to “man” as well, and speaks of a willing sacrifice.  This could be taken as this man who may come into your life as a good protective influence, or it could mean that you need to work on protecting your inner self first before venturing into another relationship, which goes with Isa above.

(Word Count: 326)

 

 

 

IE Myth 1 Passes

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Dear Rev. Crystal Groves (Crystal Groves),

Congratulations! Your Indo-European Mythology 1 submission passes.

Good work as always

Blessings,
Rev. Michael Dangler

 

Divination 1, #4

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Identify and describe one method of divination to which you find yourself attracted, and discuss its relationship to paleo-pagan divination. (minimum 300 words)

Due to my Germanic heritage, I’ve always found myself the most drawn to the runes, especially the Elder Futhark, but I’ve been learning a lot about the Young Futhark and the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc through my Anglo-Saxon Kindred.  It helps that my fiance is also drawn to the runes, as well as my best friend (though she’s also partial to the Ogham).  My main two resources for study right now are Diana Paxon’s “Taking up the Runes” and Edred Thorsson’s “Futhark”, because they were easily accessible and Paxon’s book seems to be a great compilation of information of many sources.  This gives me a book to cover many sources rather than having to spend the money on the sources themselves individually.  I do plan to expand my library here, however.

Runes are a special case, because as Thorsson mentions, they were started as a magical tradition and weren’t just language-oriented.  They are multi-functional in this way, with many references throughout texts such as the Havamal and the Sagas. Even though they span across several cultures which contributes to their variations, they are still very similar at their core.  This lends itself insight that even though they were spread out over these different cultures such as the Norse and Anglo-Saxon, that their meanings were definitive enough to stay relative to each other.

Tacitus states that it was common practice in the German culture to carve their runes into wood (which would unfortunately rot over time) and cast them onto a white cloth where they are then strictly interpreted (Thorsson, 13).  Runic incantations (runagaldrar) and posture were quite popular and mentioned in the Poetic Edda and various other artifacts found throughout history, such as the drinking horns of Gallehus.  These horns showed the incantations in the forms of humans taking the shape of the runes.  Even children were taught the runic alphabet by posturing into the shape of the rune (Thorsson, 13).

(Word Count: 319)

 

 

Divination 1, #1

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Name and briefly describe one method of divination or seership technique common to three paleo-pagan Indo-European cultures. (minimum 100 words each)

I think one of the most common method of divination was through tools with written symbols on them that have specific meanings.  Many of these were used as an alphabet in some ways, so it makes sense that they were a method of communication with the Shining Ones.

Three of the most popular of these are the Elder Futhark, the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc, and the Celtic Ogham.

The Elder Futhark is a 24 character alphabet with a mysterious origin that predates mankind in the Norse lore (Thorsson, 3). Their origins are said to come from Bronze Age priests and magicians, but where the transition came to the Germanic people in terms of language by symbols is unclear.  The actual lore behind the origin of the Runes is the story of Odin sacrificing the sight of one eye to receive the wisdom of the runes.  According to Thorsson, the futharks are divided into three families or groupings, also known as the aettir (Thorsson, 12).  It’s also important to note that they originated from a magical tradition, not just language-oriented, so they have a heavy magical association.

(Word Count: 118)

The Anglo-Saxon Futhorc is very similar to the Elder Futhark, albeit a newer variation.  Physical comparison shows very clear similarities in shape, although the Futhorc are more in number as there are 33 symbols as opposed to 24.  According to Thorsson (Thorsson, 9), the Elder Furthark was was prominent between 200 B.C.E. and 800 C.E., while the Younger Futhark was developed in seventh century C.E. and completed around 900 C.E.  The Futhorc survived Christianization until tenth century C.E.   So while the Futhorc were very similar and clearly were inspired somewhat by the Elder Futhark, there is clearly additional alternative lore to warrant the variant symbols as well as the new additional symbols of Anglo-Saxon lore.

(Word Count: 115)

Ogham is another symbol-oriented divination system, established or utilized in Ireland between 300 and 600 C.E, and is thought to have been used in training poets.  It is comprised of 25 alphabetic characters that are based off of sacred trees of Ireland (Celtic Myth and Religion, 108), and the symbols are a series of spines and dashes that make up the variants.  These trees are divided up into  four groups: chieftain trees, peasant trees, herb trees, and shrub trees.  The history surrounding the Ogham is very consistent throughout the centuries.

A similar trait between Ogham and the Runic Alphabets is that in the manuscripts of the Ogham letters, they were associated with short phrases known as “kennings”.  The Runic alphabet also had kennings, some of which provide practical information and others that are more related to symbols than anything. The tent-rune method has another very similar visual formations with that of the Ogham, showing even more of a potential relation from first glance outside of the original context.

(Word Count: 168)

(Total Word Count: 467)

 

Indo European Myth 1, #5

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To what extent do you think we can offer conjectures about Indo-European myths in general? Are the common themes strong enough that the myths seem like variations? Or are the differences so powerful that the themes are less important than the cultural variations? (minimum 300 words)

It is pretty clear that there are common themes across various cultures, in particular for my research between the Norse and the Greek.  The creation myths are very similar in respect to order from chaos to the creation of the Divine which eventually begets the creation of mankind.  There are even more similarities between the Deities and their functions like Zeus and Thor as Gods of the Sky, Thunder, and protectors of mankind.  Deities of War, Love, and Fertility on both sides and beyond.  For example, War Gods are prevalent across the board between Mars, Ares, Athena, Morrighan, and Freyja.  Fertility is represented by Demeter, Freyr, possibly Dagda from certain viewpoints.  Gods of Healing such as Brigid, Eir for the Norse, Dian Cecht in the Irish, and Apollo in the Greek lore.

After the creation of Deity, you have references to Divine wars amongst various myths for different reasons.  The Battle between the Aesir and the Vanir in the Norse, the first and second battel of Moytura in the Irish, and even the inner battles between Cronus and Zeus.

You have tales of afterlife or what happens in death across each culture that has distinct similarities between where the evil dead go compared to where the heroes are revered in the afterlife.

Many of the Indo-European cultures had a significant lore behind the well, fire, and tree that gave them a religious significance of some sort, such as the Well of Wyrd for the Norse and the Wells of Purification for the Greek.  This comparison continues with the different realms of existence between Gods, mortals, and the Ancestors.  Puhvel illustrates several recurrent themes between many of these elements (Comparative Mythology, 277), such as fire and ice in Norse Mythology and how it relates to Fire in water in Irish and Roman lore.

What is nice though, is that even with so many similarities, there are still enough differences to elaborate on the cultural differences between cultures for their own specific identity.

(Word Count: 331)

 

Indo European Myth 1, Citations

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  1. Puhvel, Jaan. “Traditions: Ancient Greece.” Comparative Mythology. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1987. 130-31. Print.
  2. Evelyn-White, Hugh G. “Theogony of Hesiod.” Wikisource, the Free Online Library. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2013.
  3. Davidson, H. R. Ellis. “The Other World.” Myths and Symbols in Pagan Europe: Early Scandinavian and Celtic Religions. Syracuse: Syracuse UP, 1988. 173-74. Print.
  4. Davidson, H. R. Ellis. “Mimir and Hoener / The Gods and Their World.” Gods and Myths of Northern Europe. London: Penguin, 1990. 29+. Print.
  5. “Asphodel Meadows.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 09 Apr. 2013. Web. 28 Sept. 2013.
  6. Sturluson, Snorri. The Prose Edda. Translation by Jean I. Young. University of California Press, Berkeley, Ca. First published by Bowes and Bowes Publishers Limited, Cambridge, England, 1954.
  7. “Homeric Hymns.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 07 Sept. 2013. Web. 28 Sept. 2013.
  8. “Poetic Edda.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 21 Aug. 2013. Web. 28 Sept. 2013.
  9. Davidson, H. R. Ellis. “The Mother Goddess.” Gods and Myths of Northern Europe. London: Penguin, 1990. 110-11. Print.
  10. Gundarsson, Kveldulf. “Wights.” Our Troth. North Charleston, SC: urge, 2006. 469. Print.
  11. Littleton, C. Scott. Mythology: The Illustrated Anthology of World Myth and Storytelling. London, England: Duncan Baird Publishers, 2002.
  12. Snorri, Sturluson. The Prose Edda of Snorri Sturluson: Tales from Norse Mythology. Berkeley: University of California, 2012. Print.
  13. Gundarsson, Kveldulf. Teutonic Religion: Folk Beliefs & Practices of the Northern Tradition. St. Paul, Minn., U.S.A.: Llewellyn Publications, 1993. Print.
 

Indo European Myth, #4

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Discuss how the following seven elements of ADF’s cosmology are (or are not) reflected in the myths of two different Indo-European cultures. For this question, please use the same two cultures as a basis of comparison for the entire question. (minimum 100 words each)

Upperworld:
In Norse Mythology, the Upperworld consists of Asgard,  Ljossalfheim, and some say the upper part of Muspelheim (Our Troth, 484).  Asgard is the realm of the Aesir,  Ljossalfheim is the realm of the light elves and air spirits, and Muspelheim is the land of fire and heat.  In Greece, they consider their Upperworld the realm of the Gods known as Olympus.  Here, the Gods dwell and look over the mortal world, much like the Norse Gods.  In ADF’s cosmology can be reflected in various parts of ritual whether we are honoring the Shining Ones as a whole, or honoring specific deities as the deities of the occasion.

(Word Count: 107)

Middleworld:
For the Norse, the Middleworld is represented by multiple realms, but the one we live in is called Midgard.  Additional realms in the Middleworld would be Jotunheim, where the giants reside, and Vanaheim which is the realm of the land and sea deities known as the Vanir.  It is most appropriate for us to regard Midgard as the Middleworld in ADF for ritual purpose.    Greek reference to what we know as the Middleworld is very basic compared to the Norse.  It is the realm in which the mortals and spirits of nature live, and that’s pretty much it.  So in terms of ADF cosmology, this pretty much coincides with our practice exactly.

(Word Count: 112)

Divisions of Middleworld:
As mentioned previously, Norse Mythology divides the Middleworld into Midgard, the realm of man, Jotunheim, the realm of giants, and Vanaheim, the realm of the land & sea deities known as the Vanir.  These realms all reside within the World Tree, and reference is made to the world being round (Prose Edda, 36).  Alternatively, early Greek mythology is developed very differently in that they do not necessarily divide the middleworld into different sects.  Instead, it is a flat piece of land surrounded by Oceanus (Littleton, 138), but eventually it was proven to be round.  Both cultures have valuable myths that support use within ADF ritual.

(Word Count: 105)

Nether/Underworld:
Svartalfheim, Niflheim, and Hel make up the Underworld in Norse Myth. Svartalfheim is the realm of the black elves and dwarves, Niflheim is the realm if ice and cold, and Hel is the realm of the dead ruled by Hel.  Greek Mythology actually presents more division in the Underworld than any of their previous realms.  There is Tartarus, the realm where the evil dead go for eternal suffering and death each day.  The Elysian Fields where the heroic deeded mortals go to spend their undead in pleasantry, and the Asphodel Meadows where those who die of old age or sickness go to rest.  In reference to ADF ritual, I would see the Asphodel Meadows, the Elysian Fields, and Hel being the most pertinent when honoring the Underworld.

(Word Count: 127)

Fire:
The world of the Norse was created from fire and ice.  The Realm of Fire was known as Muspelheim and swayed slightly between the Upperworld and the Middleworld.  Fire is also referenced by Gundarsson in Teutonic Religion as the Harrow, or “Fire Altar”, where holy fires are traditionally lit (Teutonic Religion, 206).  The rune, Kenaz, also means the torch fire, or creations fire, that which transforms, which leads fire to be an element of transformation in the lore.   Within the Greek culture, fire was seen as a method of sacrifice to the Gods.  The smoke from fire carried our messages to Olympus to the Gods, and it was rare that sacrifices were made without fire.  While not exactly the same, both cultures use fire in a sacred way, much like a need-fire within ADF rites.

(Word Count: 135)

Well:
The well is very prominent in both Norse and Greek cultures.  For the Greek, wells or fountains were seen as places to purify.  The washing of the hands is common for purification in Greek rites.  Their rivers and lakes can be seen as the access points to the Ancestors for purpose of ritual.  In the Norse, rivers and lakes flow up and down the tree of life from the Upperworld to the Underworld.  Beneath each root of the world tree sits a well of Wyrd (The Troth, 486), and even those go by many different names.  Hvergelmir’s well, Mimir’s Well, and Wyrd’s Well are common in the lore.  So a Well in general is proper in both cultures as a tool in an ADF rite.

(Word Count: 125)

Tree:
One of the most powerful symbols in Norse Mythology is that of Yggdrasil, the world tree.  It stands at the center of all worlds, that pivot of the Universe and all of the 9 realms contained within.  This is commonly thought of as an Ash tree, but some also believe it to be Yew (Our Troth, 484).  Greek myth did not associate with a World Tree, but instead held trees as sacred entities, usually associated with a deity and placed in a holy place or shrine for that purpose.  For example, the Olive tree was a gift from Athena so is considered sacred to her.

(Word Count: 105)

(Littleton 138)

 

Indo European Myth 1, #3

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Explain how each of the following elements of ADF ritual does or does not resonate with elements of two different Indo-European cultures (you need not use the same two cultures as a basis of comparison for each element): (minimum 100 words each)

Earth Mother:
The Germanic peoples, according to Tacitus, worshiped Nerthus as the Mother Earth.  There is not source on whether this means she was a lover of Tiwaz, the Sky God or not. The Greeks viewed Gaia as the Earth Mother who was simply created and bore the fruitful “earth” as we know it.  Jord/Jorth, mother of Thor, was another deity thought to be an Earth Mother, because her name simply means Earth. The fact of the matter remains, however, that many cultures view the Earth Mother as a nourishing motherly goddess that we return to in death as the ultimate cycle of birth, life, and death to rebirth (Gods and Myth).

(Word Count: 110)

Deities of the Land:
The Norse categorize their main deities into the Aesir and the Vanir, and the Vanir were seen as deities of the land.  Freyja, for example, is a fertility  Goddess (Gods and Myth, 115).  Her brother Freyr is also seen as a God of fertility and wisdom.  Greek myths depict Artemis as a great fertility goddess, but in a virginal sense.  Even Gaia, the Earth Mother, (and all earth mothers in these myths) are seen as deities of the land or fertility.  The Greeks also worshiped a minor diety named Priapus, which is a more agricultural fertility God of the land.  In ADF it would be very proper to incorporate these deities when acknowledging the land or a prayer to the land.

(Word Count: 121)

Deities of the Sea:
A common Norse sea  god was Njord, father of Freyr and Freyja.  He is a God of ships (Gods and Myths, 132) and favored those in seafaring.  Aegir was also the Ruler of the Sea in the Norse loer as a personification of the waters itself (Gods and Myth, 128).  He coupled with Ran, who used a net to entrap seafarers.  By comparison Aegir is strongly related to Poseidon in Greek Mythology, another God of the Sea who often creates earthquakes and influences storms. Atlantis was considered the domain of Poseiden after losing battle with Athena over the city of Athens.  Within ADF we can incorporate deities of the sea in relation to the well or when dealing with sea related prayers.

(Word Count: 122)

Deities of the Sky:
One of the most revered Gods in Norse Mythology is Thor, the thunder God of the sky and wielder of Mjolnir.  He is the protector of mankind that could call down storms, which also sometimes portrayed him as a fertility God because of the rains that fall to nourish the earth (Gods and Myth, 84). Zeus is a similar deity in Greek lore in that he is a God of Lightning and the Sky.  The difference is that he is also the ruler of the Olympians, where as Thor was not.  However both are attributed to being father of men or mankind.  Both of these deities are great for rituals of protection (the folk) in ADF ritual.

(Word Count: 117)

Outsiders:
In CedarLight Grove, we have often brought Thor in during our Norse rites to protect the folk and the working from the Outsiders.  He is, as has been previously mentioned, the protector of mankind, so it fits perfectly that he is associated with this part in ritual.  Since Zeus is also considered the father of mankind, I can see his influence to protect from the outsiders being used in an ADF rite as well.  Both cultures have beings that would be considered “Outsiders” as well, such as the Jotuns in the Norse or the Sirens in Greek Lore.  But they were of many names and intentions.  In Norse lore, there is also the realm of Outgarth, where a lot of the trolls and outlaws are, a perfect example of outsiders.

(Word Count: 130)

Nature Spirits:
In my kindred, we honor the Land Wights of Germanic lore as the spirits of this plane, seen and unseen, that we share Midgard with.  According to the Troth (Our Troth, 469), they are also known as the Landvaettir, which we have honored in CedarLight as our Nature Spirits during Norse rites.  They are seen as those beings found in natural places around the earth such as streams, forests, and stones. In Greek mythology, the nymphs are seen as similar spirits of the feminine persuasion found in rivers, meadows and other natural places.  Depending on the respective pantheon, we have honored both during our honoring of the three kindred in ritual at CedarLight.

(Word Count: 113)

Ancestors:
Ancestors are seen in slightly separate lights among the Norse.  The Alfar and the Desir (Our Troth, 438 & 452), also known as the grandmothers and grandfathers who have passed on.  The Disir are the ghostly human women & family spirits worshipped in the home.  The Aesir are the male ancestors and mighty dead.  In Greece they didn’t have a particular name that I’ve found for their ancestors.  They had significant hero worship that sort of overlapped with their ancestral worship, but also worshipped spirits of the home or, which could be passing family members or political figures that were revered.  Both of these are common enough in their respective cultures to warrant appropriate use in an ADF rite.

(Word Count: 119)

 

Indo European Myth 1, #1

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List and discuss the major primary sources for the mythology of three Indo-European cultures, including their dates of origin and authorship (if known). Discuss any important factors that may cause problems in interpreting these sources, such as the existence of multiple revisions, or the presence of Christian or other outside influences in surviving texts. (minimum 300 words)

I mainly work with the Norse culture, but also somewhat that of the Greek, and I suppose for this particular notation I will attempt to include the Irish since my Grove works closely with that hearth culture as well.

For knowledge of the Greek culture, most people turn to Homer’s Illiad and Odyssey which features epic poetry about history and the Divine as primary sources of both a historical and liturgical influence.  There is also Theogony by Hesiod thought to be written around 750 or 650 B.C., which is claimed to be a more detailed account of the actual history and creation of the world.  Additional sources of reference for Greek Mythology include the Homeric Hymns which is various works from various anonymous historians.  The reason they are called the “Homeric” hymns is because they follow the same style as Homer’s works and written around seventh century B.C (Homeric Hymns).  I do not see any particular issue with these resources as the Greeks were very passionate about their storytelling traditions, and while I’m sure they were embellished, they have a great record of recorded history compared to other cultures.

While not the first sources of Germanic tradition, the Edda’s are probably the most influential literary sources for the lore of northern traditions.  Snorri Sturluson, born in 1179 and died in1241, was a historian who wrote the Prose Edda as a tales of religious tales.  The Poetic Edda is a series of poems from various authors, but was hidden in origin for so long that it’s not known from where it came from or how long ago it was written.  But it was found by a bishop in 1693 and placed in the Codex Regius from the 13th century (Poetic Edda).  Without knowing the original source for these texts, we’re forced to try and interpret them by comparing them to other texts or significant historical research to determine whether they are credible sources of information.

The Celtic Mythology was so strongly based on an oral tradition due to the written word being forbidden for so long to some castes.  The Book of Dun Cow is the oldest of the manuscripts that survived in the medieval times.  The Book of Leinster is where we equate the Battle of Moytura as a crucial piece of lore for the Celts.  Unfortunately, Christian monks and religious figures have been the sources for the compilation of oral notations to written scripts that we have now.  It is assumed in some circles that they largely influence the tales with their own Christianized input, which to me would mean they are somewhat diluted from that point of view.  It makes it more difficult to assume that these texts are entirely accurate due to the bias nature that could be prevalent in the Christian viewpoint.

(Word Count:466)

 

Indo European Mythology 1, #2

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Summarize, then compare and contrast the myths of at least two Indo-European cultures with respect to the following topics (you need not use the same two cultures as a basis of comparison for each topic): (minimum 300 words for each)

Tales of Creation:
The history of the world in Greek Mythology starts with Chaos, Gaia (the earth), Eros (Love), and Tartarus as the only existent beings at the time.  There’s no known origin of the world before them, so there’s no “creation” of the world necessarily, because the earth is Gaia (Hesiod).  But the marriage between Gaia and Ouranos, whom she gave birth to as well, starts their general creation of myth (Puhvel).  They then gave birth to the sea and the Titans.  This creates a domino effect of more creations, such as Okeanos and Kronos, and then that whole debacle of Kronos teaming up with Gaia (because Ouranos was kind of a bastard) in cutting of Ouranos’s junk, throwing it into the sea, and from that comes Aphrodite.

Pass through the various creations afterwards, you meet up with Prometheus who was tasked with the creation of man.  Prometheus created man out of mud and Athena breathed life into them.  Prometheus had a great love for man, so much that he loved them more than the Olympians.  They were his creations afterall.

In the culture of the Norse, there is a similar fashion of a simplified existence in order out of Chaos like that of the Greeks.  The “nothing” or “formlessness” called Ginnungagap, was considered the original Chaos before creation (The Other World).  From here, Ice was formed, and in the realm of Muspell came fire.  Between these two, the giant Ymir was created, and he was considered male and female.  Ymir created the giants from his body (or rather, they came from his body), and while this was going on , an ancient cow was created from the ice, and by licking the ice blocks she created three brothers known as the Sons of Bor.  They slew Ymir and used his body to create the land, sea, and sky.  It is said that three “creator gods”, which are believed to be the same as the Sons of Bor mentioned earlier, walked to the sea and found two trees of driftwood.  They then breathed life into them to create the first man and woman.

An alternative version in the poem Risgpula dictates that Heimdall was in the beginning, is the father of men, and created three classes of men.  Noblemen, farmers, and slaves.

So there is a clear similarity in the core concepts of creation outside of the intricacies of how it came about.  There is tale of something being born from nothing (Order from Chaos), there is a hierarchy of created Divine beings (births of Gods and Titans), and then there is a being or beings creating man and woman.

(Total Word count: 435)

The Divine War
In the realm of the Norse the Divine War was between the Aesir and the Vanir.  The Aesir were considered deities of sky and war, while the Vanir were the deities of the land.  These two were at war, though we don’t have much information at all as to why. Davidson talks about the great war having to do with rivalry between the old deities and the new.  He goes on to examine Dumezil’s mention of the war coming from an old hostility between gods of fertility and gods of magic.

Anyway, Njord, father to Freyr and Freyja, was sent as a hostage to Asgard, along with his children (Davidson).  Additionally, Mimir and Hoenir were sent as hostages to the Vanir for the same reasons to balance the truce.  This act, and their absorption into the Aesir, even though they were hostages, would help end the war as an act of faith between both sides.

By comparison in the Greek Mythology, you have the tale of the battle between the Olympians and the Titans, and how Cronus wanted to remove the ability for the same thing to happen to him as he did to Uranus when he overthrew him and took over.  A consequence of this, Cronus swallows his own children, but is tricked by Rhea with a stone that was supposed to be Zeus due to her disagreement with Cronus’s actions against her children.  Zeus, of course, eventually gets his siblings back by defeating Cronus once he is grown.

So essentially, divine wars were a big ball of catty power-driven hostility for one reason or another.  Either they are fighting over power fighting over their differences, but in the end things did not always work out the way it was intended.  The Gods were a tricky bunch in these stories.

(Word Count: 301)

The Fate of the Dead
In Greek lore, they took death very seriously.  This is something that is taught to many of us through literary education in middle school from what I remember.  I recall stories of doing without proper funeral preparations, such as coins on the eyes to pay Charon the ferryman in order to cross into Hades, and how it was the task of the living to prep the dead for their crossing.  Whether in the Mycenaean Period or in Classic Greece, one thing is prominent, that the dead are prepared in some fashion before burial.

Once dead, there were multiple realms in which the dead were sent, depending on their actions while they were living.  Tartarus is below Hades as a realm for the truly wicked.  The Elysian Fields was a place for heroes of great deeds to spend the afterlife in great comfort.   And Homer mentions the Asphodel Meadows was a realm for normal people who were neither evil or heroic (Wikipedia).

Norse Mythology tells great tales of fallen warriors in battle being taken to Valhalla or Folkvang by Odin or Freyja respectively.  They feast on pig, die in battle, and are reborn each day.  They are expected to fight in the battle of Ragnarok at the end of the world, kinda like a great army of the Gods. This is similar to the Elysian Fields of Greek Mythology where heroes are given special glory by the Gods.

Those who have done evil deeds are sent to Nifelheim, a dark and bitter place, where they will also die again each day in suffering.  This is very similar to the Greek Tartarus of evil dead.

The average folks who die of age or sickness are also sent to Nifelheim, but they live in what is considered a Citadel in this realm, not the same place of suffering for the evil dead (Sturluson).

(Word Count: 310)